Case Study - Safe and Secure: The ccTLD Protection Journey

What is a DNS query?


A DNS query (also known as a DNS request) is a demand for information sent from a user's computer (DNS client) to a DNS server. In most cases a DNS request is sent, to ask for the IP address associated with a domain name. An attempt to reach a domain, is actually a DNS client querying the DNS servers to get the IP address, related to that domain.

Types of DNS queries

In general, there are two ways of resolving a host or a domain name to an IP address, using the domain name system – a Recursive DNS query and a non-Recursive DNS query.

The Recursive DNS query is, when a DNS client directly gets the IP address of a domain, by asking the name server system to perform the complete translation.

The non-Recursive DNS query is, when a DNS client contacts the name servers, one by one, until it finds the server, containing the needed information.

How do they work?

The process behind Recursive DNS queries, can be explained by the following example:

1. A user opens up his favorite browser and enters in the address bar. His computer does not know the IP address for, so it sends a request to the user’s DNS resolver.
2. The resolver does not know the IP address for, so it will query one of the root DNS servers.
3. The root servers know the locations of all the TLDs, such as .com, they do not know the IP of, so they return the location of the .com servers.
4. Once the query reaches the .com TLD servers, it will find the Authoritative DNS server of and will reply to the resolver with that server.
5. The resolver will send a query to the Authoritative DNS server of the domain and will resolve it.
6. The Authoritative DNS server of the domain will check within its database and will find an entry for, which has an IP address.
7. Finally the resolver will know the IP address for and will send the result to the user's computer.

The process behind non-Recursive DNS queries, follows the same procedure, but the DNS client (the machine from which the user tries to resolve the domain) will have to find the authoritative DNS server for the domain, by itself.
The DNS client will have to ask by itself, first the root servers, then the TLD servers and finally the Authoritative DNS server to be able to resolve the domain.

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The importance of DNS queries

The DNS query is crucial to the functioning of the Internet. Without DNS queries, users would have to remember the IP addresses of websites they want to visit, which is impractical. DNS queries allow users to easily access websites using their domain names, making the Internet more user-friendly. Additionally, DNS queries help distribute web traffic across multiple servers, which improves website performance and reduces downtime.


Question: Can DNS queries be encrypted? 

Answer: Yes, DNS queries can be encrypted using protocols such as DNS over HTTPS (DoH) and DNS over TLS (DoT).

Question: What happens if a DNS query fails? 

Answer: If a DNS query fails, the client will not be able to connect to the website associated with the domain name. DNS queries fail for different reasons, such as server downtime, network connectivity issues, or incorrect DNS settings.

Question: Can DNS queries be intercepted or manipulated? 

Answer: Yes, attackers can intercept or manipulate DNS queries using techniques such as DNS spoofing or DNS hijacking. As a result, the user can be redirected to a fake website or has their personal information stolen.

Last modified: 2023-03-15
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