Written by 1:20 pm DNS, Domain names • One Comment

What is TLD?

The TLD is one of the fundamental things you will have to consider when choosing a domain name once you want to create your website. But what exactly is TLD, and how to choose the best one for you? Don’t worry, and keep reading! In today’s article, we will explain everything! So, let’s start!

Domain name explained

The domain name is a unique identifier that is utilized for accessing websites. Thanks to the Domain Name System (DNS) – a hierarchical naming system that translates domain names into IP addresses, users can connect to websites using domain names. Compared to IP addresses, domain names are very easy to remember for regular users. 

The structure of a domain name, starting from left to right, is the following: 

  • Subdomain: It is located on the left side of a secondary domain and serves as an extension to the primary domain. A subdomain, such as blog.site.com, represents a separate website section. It should be noted that not every domain has a subdomain.
  • Second-Level Domain: It is positioned in the middle of a domain name and is usually the most memorable part of the domain structure. People commonly use their personal or business names.
  • Top-Level Domain (TLD): It is the extension at the very end of the domain name, such as .com or .net.

The complete version of a domain name, also known as the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), also includes the hostname.

Now that you know more about domain names and the position of the TLD (Top-Level Domain), let’s explain a little bit more about what it actually is.

What does TLD stand for?

The short acronym TLD stands for Top-Level Domain and represents the last part of the domain name, located after the last dot. Also known as domain extensions, TLDs can help to recognize some aspects of a website, such as its purpose or geographical area.


In the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy, the TLD (Top-Level Domain) defines the first stop after the Root zone. Additionally, it has an extremely vital role in the DNS lookup process (DNS resolution). When a user types a domain name into their browser, like example.net, the Recursive DNS server searches the corresponding IP address by communicating with many servers, including the TLD server. In this case, the TLD is .net, so the Recursive DNS server will contact the TLD server responsible for all domains with the extension .net. Then the search continues until the Recursive DNS server gets the requested IP address from the Authoritative DNS server of example.net.

Having an understanding of what a TLD is, let’s now proceed to explain the various types of TLDs in depth. 

Types of TLDs

There are several main types of TLD (Top-Level Domain).

Generic Top-level Domains (gTLD)

They are the most popular TLDs, and they can serve so many different purposes. Here are some of the most popular generic TLDs:

  • .com – At present days, it’s the most widely used TLD. Yet, originally it was used for commercial sites. 
  • .net – At first, it was utilized by businesses working with networking technology. Currently, all sorts of organizations and companies benefit from it.
  • .org – It comes from “organization,” and that is why it is very suitable for many nonprofit associations.
  • .tech – A very suitable and preferred choice for tech companies.
  • .biz – A great extension of all kinds of businesses.

Choose your Generic or Country TLD from ClouDNS

Country Code Top-level Domains (ccTLD)

The ccTLDs illustrate different countries and geographical areas. They are usually two-letter codes specified by ISO 3166-1 alpha 2. An interesting fact is that there are more than 300 ccTLDs in the IANA’s list. The reason for that is simple ccTLDs can also illustrate sovereign states and dependent territories. Here are several examples of popular ccTLDs:

  • .us – United States
  • .ca – Canada
  • .de – Germany
  • .fr – France
  • .cn – China
  • .es – Spain

Sponsored Top-level Domains (sTLD)

Sponsored Top-Level Domains, according to the name, are proposed and supervised by private organizations. Usually, these entities are businesses, government agencies, and different organized groups.

The Sponsored Top-Level Domains (sTLD) list only contains a short number of alternatives. Back in the day, such types of TLDs were only .edu, .gov, and .mil. Yet, in recent years have been created new Sponsored Top-Level Domains and their number has increased. 

Here are some of the most popular sTLDs:

  • .gov – for United States governmental agencies
  • .edu – for higher educational organizations
  • .mil – for usage by the US military
  • .museum – for museum institutions
  • .travel – for travel industry companies

Infrastructure Top-Level Domain (ARPA)

The Infrastructure Top-Level Domain is a special category that actually includes just one single TLD, which is the Address and Routing Parameter Area (ARPA). In addition, IANA directly manages the domain extension .arpa for the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) under the guidance of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). It is utilized only for technical infrastructure purposes.

Test Top-Level Domains (tTLD)

The Test Top-Level Domains, also known as tTLD, are extensions reserved for local testing and documentation objectives only. Therefore, they can not be established in the global Domain Name System (DNS).

Here are the four tTLDs:

  • .test – reserved for testing various scenarios or software
  • .localhost – used for testing local networks.
  • .example – dedicated for placeholders and documentation objectives
  • .invalid – displays invalid domain names

Who’s accountable for managing TLDs?

ICANN is responsible for managing the TLDs. The short acronym stands for Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, which is actually a non-profit organization. That is possible thanks to a division of ICANN known as IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority).

In addition, ICANN/IANA delegates some of the responsibilities for certain Top-Level Domains to other organizations.

How to choose the right TLD for you?

Choosing a TLD could sometimes be overwhelming. So here are a little bit more details and tips that will help you make your decision more effortlessly.

  • Choose a TLD that corresponds to your business characteristics.
  • Keep it short. That way, you make it clear and concise, and your visitors don’t get confused when writing your domain name into their browsers.
  • Check availability. The combination of your SLD and your chosen TLD could be already taken.
  • Target your market. Choose a specific ccTLD, in case you want to focus on a precise county.
  • Exact match with your brand. Make sure to register a domain name that is not misspelled. That would confuse your visitors.
  • Popular TLDs, like .com, .org, net, and .info, are usually considered more trustworthy by regular users. 
  • Consider new gTLDs. By selecting a newer TLD, you can distinguish your business from opponents. Additionally, some of them help you create amazing domain names. For example, there are industry TLDs like .film, .press, .digital, and more. 


The Top-Level Domain (TLD) is very important and provides details about your business purpose or location. Additionally, it helps you reach the desired market. That is why it is crucial to confuse your audience. There are lots of different types of TLDs. So, make sure to choose one that better suits your needs.

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Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , Last modified: July 5, 2023